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When students genuinely demonstrate their learning, they achieve results based on their own work and effort. These results may lead to benefits such as lifelong learning, certification, employment, university entry or awards...Academic Integrity requires academic responsibilities to be approached in an honest, moral and ethical way.  (QCAA, 2023)

The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in learning and assessment must be ethical, transparent, and purposeful. You may engage in the uses of AI only where they uphold the principles of Academic Integrity. You must avoid the use of AI in anyway which may contravene the principles of Academic Integrity. Ensure you are clear on the ethical uses in your studies. (James Cook University, 2023)

APA In-text Citations & Referencing: AI Tools

APA Style have updated their protocols for in-text citations and refencing any AI tools (e.g., ChatGPT) used in research papers. This is a work in progress and APA continue to seek advice, feedback and intelligence from many sources. Therefore, the protocols below are subject to change.

This is the fullest and latest version. [May, 2023]


Here is the University of Queensland's example of APA7 Citation and Refencing:

APA 7th

Based on APA Style guidance.


Author of generative AI model, Year of version used


(OpenAI, 2022)

OpenAI (2022)

Reference list

Author of AI model used. (Year of AI model used). Name of AI model used (Version of AI model used) [Type or description of AI model used]. Web address of AI model used


OpenAI. (2022). ChatGPT (Dec 20 version) [Large language model].

The full transcript of a response can be included in an appendix or other supplementary materials.

Visit How to cite ChatGPT for more information...this is explained in more detail below.


How to cite ChatGPT: APA 7 Style Team [Full Details]

The reference and in-text citations for ChatGPT are formatted as follows:


In-text Citation

  • Parenthetical citation:    (OpenAI, 2023)
  • Narrative citation:           OpenAI (2023)


OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].

Let’s break that reference down and look at the four elements (author, date, title, and source):              


The author of the model is OpenAI


Year of the version you used


Name of the model is “ChatGPT,” and italicised

Version number included after title in (parentheses)

Bracketed txt describes the kind of model ChatGPT descriptor is [Large language model]


When the publisher name and the author name are the same, do not repeat the publisher name. Include direct URL:


Quoting ChatGPT’s text from a chat session you must acknowledge the author (of the algorithm) with an APA 7:

  • In-text Citation (if used)
  • Reference List Entry


In-text Citation

When prompted with “Is the left brain right brain divide real or a metaphor?” the ChatGPT-generated text indicated that although the two brain hemispheres are somewhat specialized, “the notation that people can be characterized as ‘left-brained’ or ‘right-brained’ is considered to be an oversimplification and a popular myth” (OpenAI, 2023).


OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].


You may also place full text of long responses from ChatGPT in an appendix of your paper, so readers have access to the exact text that was generated. It is particularly important to document the exact text created because ChatGPT will generate a unique response in each chat session. Do not include Appendix if you do not refer to each appendix item in main body of your work/paper.


In-text Citation

When given a follow-up prompt of “What is a more accurate representation?” the ChatGPT-generated text indicated that “different brain regions work together to support various cognitive processes” and “the functional specialization of different regions can change in response to experience and environmental factors” (OpenAI, 2023; see Appendix A for the full transcript).


OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].

This is a work in progress…

We, the APA Style team humans, appreciate your patience as we navigate these unique challenges and new ways of thinking about how authors, researchers, and students learn, write, and work with new technologies.

How to cite ChatGPT (

DOWNLOAD: How to cite ChatGPT: APA 7 Style Team